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ISD kosh T

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Talarukha Santhano

Talarukha is a palm tree, and Santhana is the universe consisting of the three worlds or triloka. In the Dhavalā the universe is described as in the form of a palm tree.


Tapācāra (Tapachara)

Conduct of twelve types of austerity or tapas (six inner, six outer).



Ascetic undergoing penance in order to destroy the accumulated karmas.

The twelve austerities are:

Six outer austerities: 1) Abstaining from food; 2) To sustain control by the will over the senses; 3) Limiting the number of food items; 4) Abstaining from fatty and sweet substances; 5) having a bed for oneself alone only on a place from disturbing insects etc.; 6) Getting the body inured to pain and suffering by bearing heat, cold and not seeking to avoid such circumstances.

Six inner austerities: 1) Removal of evil ideas; 2) Practicing humility towards gurus and masters; 3) Attendance and services to munis; 4) Quickening of thoughts by meditation; 5) Renouncing the belief that one’s body is one’s own; 6) Calm mediation on the Self after controlling the vagaries of thought (From Susā).



Practitioner of tapas



The tattvas in Jainism are matter and soul the interactions between them: The seven tattvas are: 1) soul (jīva); 2) matter (pudgala); and in between is 3) bondage (bandha); 4) influx (āśrava): When there is some influx of karma in the form of matter this immediately gets attached making a bond with the soul. (as if magnetically attracted and attached); 5) protection from karma (samvara) 6) nirjira (releaving the soul of karmas by giving their fruits. By austerity they come quicker, but can never be burned off) 7) nirwāṇa or moksa, i.e no karma on the soul. These seven are most important to be thought upon and behaved upon accordingly for the wise among the people.



The one who is going to attain salvation in this very life.



The place from which the soul have left the mundane world of rebirth. The Tīrthaṅkaras are those who have prepared those tīrthas for the people to make it possible to move across the mundane world to the spiritual world and finally reach nirwāṇa



The site of two feet imprints (c(h)arana) indicating the spot where an ascetic stood in meditative austerity and attained salvation.



Literally: ford maker. One who reach the highest state while staying in human embodiment to teach. When karma is over when they enter the nirwāṇa of no return, but the have left guidelines that are sufficient for the people of the coming period to be able to reach nirwāṇa by their own effort. There are 24 Tīrthaṅkaras in each half-cycle (so there are 48 in one kālacakra (full time cycle). Images of all 24 Tīrthaṅkaras of the present downward half-cycle (avasarpiṇī) are usually found in Jain temples, while the temple houses one main Tīrthaṅkara after which it is named. The first of these 24 was Ṛṣabha (Rishabh), the last four were Naminātha, Neminātha, Parśvanātha and Mahāvīra. In some temples one can see the trikāla (past, present and future) Tīrthaṅkaras represented as well as described in Jain scriptures (Ahicchatra Sthitha ji).


Tīrthaṅkara Prakrati Nāma Karma.

The karma through which Tīrthaṅkarahood comes in the future. The only good karma out of the 148 types; all others are bad, i.e. have an influence against the soul on its way to salvation and cause suffering. This karma is earned by observing the sixteen cause reflections, the ten dharmas, austerity and continuous alertness like ascetics of the 8th guṅasthāna and onwards. They are known as pūrvavidi.


Triawarti Three times nine ṇamokar mantras while facing North and East.



Silence of mind, speech and body while showing one’s back to the world.




This Universe (Triloka – three worlds) is divided into three regions: 1) Adholoka , consisting of seven Seven hells (bhūmis, ‘grounds’ or ‘earths’) arranged in seven layer, the worse below the relatively better hell. Together containing 8,4 million hellish locations; 2) Madhyaloka or the Middle World consists of innumerable ‘continents’ (rather cosmic spheres or (invisible) planets, called dvīpas) each with a surrounding ‘ocean’, including our earth in the central dvīpa (Jambudvīpa) Jambudvīpa is surrounded by many surrounding circular (plani)spheres; Ūrdhvaloka  consisting of 84 or 63 heavens (depending on the system used).


Tyagi One who gives up all, even the home where he could comfortably live.