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ISD kosh P

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Padhārta see Nava Padārtha

Padma Purāṇa

‘Jain Rāmayāna’. The scripture from where the Hindu Ramayana was inspired.


 Pañcācāra (Panchaachaar).

Five types of conduct: ratnatraya + tapāchār (austerity) and vīryācār (energy in keeping vows; never giving up).


Pañcācāri ascetic

Someone who practices pañcācāra


Pañca parameṣṭhi (Pancha Parameshthi)

The five objects of worship for Jains. They are also represented by the five vowels of the AUM or OM-sound 1) A = Aśariri = those without physical or ethereal body (Siddhas); 2) A = Arhata; 3) Ā (long a): Ācharya; U = Upādhyāya (those who study the scriptures and teach); M – Munis: all munis, i.e. completely naked monks. Pronounced as a a ā um.


Pañca suna (Panch suna)

The five unavoidable sins of householders (non-ascetics): 1. Burning fire to cook food; 2. Cleaning of the dwelling where one lives; 3. Pestle and mortar for dehusking grain; 4. Grinders to powder the grains; 5. Washing and pouring water around and in a drain where insects die.

Pañcam Gati (Pancham Gati) See Gati.

‘Five-gati’. The svastika itself symbolizes the four gatis or possible realms of existence of living beings. A svastika with an arrow standing perpendicular on its center pointing upwards symbolizes the way out forever from these four realm of continuous cyclic existence and embodiment.  Reaching salvation (nirwāna) from the center of the swastika. See also Samudghat


Pañcam (Pancham) ūrdhva gati

In less than a wink of eye from here to Siddhaloka (distance 7 rajjus)


Paramātma The highest or purified soul.


Parśvanātha (Parshvanath)

The 23rd Tīrthaṅkara, who lived about 3000 years ago in Varanasi, and reached nirwāṇa at Shikarji. His idol is recognizable by a hood of (at least) seven cobra heads. The cobra is a celestial being called Dharanand.



Broom of compassion and mercy held by the ascetics and (with the Digambaras) made of peacock feathers. Peacock feathers, only collected when naturally dropped by the peacocks, are very refined and soft at their tops, so that even the smallest insects do not suffer when broomed away. Moreover the feathers have electrostatic properties pushing away dust before actually being touched. Besides a hygienic water bowl it is the only possession of the monks, and these are compulsory for observing the safety of the minutest living beings from being harmed while the monk moves, picks up or lays something down.



Nature, natural surroundings.



Natural language in many diversities, as old as speech itself. Jains in Mahāvīra’s days and region (in present day Bihar) spoke Shaurseni Prakrit. The Prakrits are distinguished from Sanskrit, a formalized and unchanging language derived from Prakrits. Vedic Sanskrit bears witness of influence of the Prakrits of that period.



The trial of self-test, improvement of self-control comes through observing eleven pratimas (vows): 1) darśanpratima = right view, and action of going to the temple and seeing the kayotsargi (= introvert) Jina image to copy it into oneself; 2) vrata pratima: keeping the anuvrats (small vows for lay people) life long. The so-called ‘3 d’s’ are controlled: direction, duration and distance are controlled by oneself. Life ends with sallekhana; 3) sāmāyik pratima. = one has to do sāmāyik three times a day: at sunrise, midday, sunset: vow for 15, 30 or 48 minutes and on the 8th and 14th lunar day one has to observe complete fast); 4) proṣḍhopavās; 5) sachitta tyāga giving up consume anything that has vitality in it, like uncooked fruits, raw vegetables (salads); 6) ratri bhukti tyāga – not taking or preparing food in night; 7) Brahmācārya pratima (living as celibates); 8) ārambha tyāga: no livelihood, no business, no agriculture, no house cleaning etc.; 9) parigraha tyāga: minimum possession (only three saris or 3 man’s cloth); 10) Anumati tyāga: no concern to sanction anything in the family in any case; 11) Uddist tyāga: no food even for her or him would be cooked or prepared. It should be like a preparation for a nun or monk.



The ‘sheet stage’ during samudghat.



From proṣḍh = purifying and upavāsa = to sit or be near the soul. Proṣḍhopavāsa is the fasting day for śramanas and śravikas to refrain themselves from worldly involvement. It is dome every 8th and 14th day of the waxing moon and idem of the waning moon



Matter, non-living substance of various types (including physical matter) of which bodies (physical and subtle) are built.






Literature which refers to old events.


Puruṣārtha (Purusharth)

(Puruṣa = soul; artha = fruitful gain, its symbol is the ‘bow’). Self controlled determination or strenuous effort for spiritual advancement; any work done for the benefit of the soul. With puruṣārth comes ascetism.


 Puṣpadantanātha (Pushpadantnath)

The ninth Tīrthaṅkara, whose symbol is a crocodile.