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ISD kosh M

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The horizontal middle region is built of several circles of lands and oceans, one inside the other in alternate arrangement. The central round land is known as Jambu Dwīpa (island, or continent) on which our daily world is situated. Jambu Dwīpa is surrounded by a salt ocean with double the diameter of the land. Next the ocean is surrounded by Dhataki Khanda as a ring around Jambu Dwīpa and its ocean, surrounded by the Kāloda ocean. The third ring-island is Puṣkara Dwīpa. Right in the middle of this island-ring an arm bracelet like a mountain-ring divides it into an closer and an further half. Thus there are two-and-a-half-islands inside this mountain range (The range is called Manuṣottara mountain – the mountain further than which humans can be found) – It is called Dhaidvīpa or 2½ dvīpas – the only location where embodied humans can occur. Beyond that area no humans can go, but animals, celestials, plants and minerals can still embody there. There are numerous island rings stretching ever further, but they are all inside Loka, so there is a (unknown – but comprising at least some dozens) limit to their number, and the last one is called Swayambhuraman dwīpa



The famous Hindu Epic of fighting and war, but in Jain literature Kṛṣṇa symbolizes himself as the Soul, and the 5 Pāṇḍavas brothers as the five senses connected to the mind. The ‘enemy’ party or Kauravas are the worldly karmas. The basic text of the Jain Mahābhārata, which antedates the Hindu Mahābhārata, is to be found in the Jain Harivaṅsā Purāṇa.



Big fish that swims in the outermost ocean (savyanbhuraman ocean) of Madhya Loka. Beyond that is the last land known Svayambhuraman dwīpa.

The fish survives on smaller fishes.


Mahāpurāṇa or ‘great book referring to ancient events’ is a Jain scripture about the Jinas categorized under prathamanuyoga (= stories). It also contains the story of Rāma, the Padma Purāṇa – the ‘Jain Ramāyana.


Mahāvīra (Mahaveer, = Great Hero)

The 24th and last Tīrthaṅkara in our present downward moving time cycle. His vernacular name of honor was Vardhaman. He was born and lived in Vaishali, probably in 599 BCE and reached nirwāṇa at 72 in Pawāpuri (now in Bihar) in 527 BCE years ago. Presumably he was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha who lived in the same region, but also of the last the dates are not sure. The Digambara and Śvetambara versions give life histories differing in some points.



The Great Vows of life-long self restriction taken by monks: they are 5 in number: 1) ahimsa mahāvrata or great vow of nonviolence, 2) satya or truth mahāvrata, and those of 3) non-stealing, 4) celibacy and 5) non-possessing (Aparigraha)


Maheśvara Sūtra

A Hindu scripture about the worshiping of Śiva.



Telepathy. The object located in the thought of another is called mana (mind). What is the entity which is in other’s mind? It is the subjective (knowledge) form of an [object]. The knowledge obtained by approaching such an object from all sides and effected by the purity of the self is manaḥparyaya or telepathy (Susā).


Mānastambha (Maanstambh)

Pillar of Ego, found in front of most Jain temples. (The original is in the center of Samavasaran). Four equal Jinas sitting facing 4 directions. It is meant for people to become aware of the humility of one’s ego in comparison to the spiritual conqueror or Jina.


Māngi Tungi (Maangi Tungi)

Twin mountain, two volcanic peaks, in Maharashtra near Challisgaon railway station. Very ancient Jain pilgrimage site where a lava tube stand emerging on each of the two tops, because the surrounding softer material has been eroded away. Jina images are found around these root-lava-tubes. Rāma (known as an incarnation of a Hindu god, but appearing earlier in Jain literature (Padma Purāṇa) as a king who according to Jainism has practices austerities there, died there and reached salvation. So he became a Siddha. As Siddha he is worshiped by Jains, not as the godlike human being (awatāra or incarnation of Viṣṇu) of the Hindu Ramāyāna. In the corner is a naked kayotsargi. It is Hanuman (often erroneously called ‘monkey-god’) doing penance facing the corner, away from the world, being a most handsome man, but avoiding the women chasing him.

There are Jain cave temples around both the standing lava pillars. On the lava stone are jinas which have faded faces because they are very ancient.



Special words to orient the attention to a particular point; shortest possible expression of a spiritual truth.


Marici (Marichi)

Grandson of the first Tīrthaṅkara, Ṛṣabha, who instigated many disciples to doubt Ṛṣabha’s way of austerity, as a result of which 363 followers of Ṛṣabha started other systems. However, later the soul of Marici, after still having to face several rebirths despite his Tīrthaṅkara karma (called Tīrthaṅkara prakrati nāma karma) became the 24th Tirthaṇkara, Mahāvīra.


Mati jñāna (Mati gyan)

Sensory knowledge. That which knows its objects through the senses and the mind or that through which the objects are known or knowing alone. (Susā)  Mati based shrutajñāna is sense perception based scriptural knowledge


Meru (Mount) or Sumeru

The central, three-terraced square mountain in the middle of Jambū Dvīpa and Madhyaloka. It stretches itself up into the heavenly world far and is in height far beyond any known mountain on it – almost up to where the jyotiṣka, i.e. celestials with their vehicles seen as the sun, moon, planets and stars reside.


Middle World See Madhyaloka



Those who are not noble, i.e who are not seriously interested in religion and higher spiritual values, and turn to violence, are egoistic, carry selfish ill feelings and are feasting on other beings’ flesh (but some can be vegetarians also). The whole world falls under the territory of Āryakhand. Mlecchakhand is supposed to be outside our world. Present day low types of people are originally Āryas, who however have, under influence of ignorance, taken to bad habits.


Mohanīya karma

Deluding or charming karma (but not destructive for the soul’s qualities).



Next to Harappa the most important archaeological site with ruins of an entire city. Near Karachi, Pakistan.


Mokṣa (Moksh)

Nirwāṇa. The highest state of consciousness, in which the soul is relieved from all karmas.



One who aims to reach mokṣa



‘Salvation Mountain’ (salvation = mukta or mokṣa or nirwāṇa) Peaks are where three Indian states join: Maharastra, Madya Pradesh and former Vidharva (now part of Maharashtra) near the town of Amarawati. The temples are only on the one peak where the waterfall runs. On the top of the hill crores of monks have gone in the last part of their life to die and gain salvation.



Nude Jain ascetic. The completely naked monks in Digambar Jainism (in contrast, ellaks, kṣelluks and āryikas are not considered munis because they wear minimum cloths. In Śvetambara Jainism ‘normal’ (dressed) ascetics are also called munis, but according to Digambaras they can not reach beyond the 5th guṇasthāna of spiritual development, whereas the Digambara munis (only men) can reach the seventh. The remaining 7 steps can not be climbed in our present age of darkness and suffering.