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ISD kosh K

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Kalacakra (Kalachakra)

The wheel of time. It is divided in two halves: downward = avasarpini, and upward = utsarpini. Both halves are divided in six sectors, which, from bottom to top are called duhkha-duhkha; dukkha; sukha-duhkha, duhkha-sukha, sukha and sukha-sukha; duhkha (or duṣṣamā   meaning suffering, and sukha (or suṣamā) meaning joy. The upward half goes vice versa.


Kalpa (wish-trees) trees

Trees which provided in the times before Rishabha to living beings including humans all they needed. They are of 10 types: (from Jain Siddhanta Kosh):


Madyāṅga = beverage tree

Turyāṅga = sound making tree

Vibhushāṅga = decorative things for people, ornaments

Malyāṅga = garlands tree

Jyotiraṇga = light making tree (trees gave light, radiation)

Deepāṅga = burning lights- tree

Grahāṅga = house-like trees

Bhojanāṅga = food-providing trees

Pātāṅga = container-providing trees (like coconut shell)

Vastrāṅga = cloths-providing trees


Kapāt (Kapaat)

‘Door’ or folded sheet. The second stage of samudghat. Before the soul takes the three-dimensional lokapuran it first takes form of a one-dimensional stick (daṇḍa) from the top to the bottom of the Universe (loka), the expands into a two-dimensional kapāt flattening out into a sheet (pratar). See further samudghat and lokapuran.


Kaṣāyas (Kashayas)

Passions. Literally: factors which are tightening the soul.



Action, mental and emotional, vocal as well as physical. It is the influx of karmic-matter fragments (karmapudgala; pudgala = matter, gross or subtle) which are drawn towards the vibrating soul and fixed to its surface as a result of an active – emotional or mental – vibration of the soul.



The giving up of attention to the body by an awakened soul. In practice it is a motionless body posture, sitting, sometimes lying, or even standing.



Person doing kayotsarga


Kevala darśana (Kevaladarshan)

Omniscient vision by a kevali (omniscient person).


Kevala āna (Kevalgyaan, etc.)

Omniscient knowledge of the kevali, the fifth of the five knowledges: 1 mati jñana comes through perceptive organs and is recorded on the soul in knowledge; 2) śruta jñana: the knowledge of cognition. For the second mati impulse it matches and is recognized. It has four steps of avagraha ‘down-grasping’) resulting into memory. If something is the same as an earlier perception there is memory, of two types: recognition or by listening; 3) avadhi jñāna: clairvoyant knowledge, also of animals (animals can reach the fifth guṇasthāna, i.e only those with five senses and mind); 4) manaḥparyaya: reading of the mind of others, which can be done by sages of eighth level and above. When all these, as being worldly knowledges, are transcended then śruta jñana grows so that it becomes: 5) Kevala jñāna, ending all the indirect knowledges.



Omniscient person, possessing Kevala āna. This accomplishment is the 12th step or guṇasthāna on the 14-step spiritual ladder.


Khandagiri on Kumarihill

A hill near Bhubaneśvar (near Puri) in Orisa. There are two tops : Khandagiri and Udaiyagiri where Jain natural and later artificial caves occupied by Jain monks existed. In the first Century BCE there was a king called Khārvel or Khārabela, who expanded the caves, on the brow of that cave he had an inscription made of his worldly victories and the glory of Jainism and Jinas beginning with ‘OM’ and outside the cave two phrases of the Ṇamokar mantra were inscribed, and a swastika and a symbol of the srivatsa of a Jina – not a symbol of hunting but of austerity. This is the earliest known record of the ṇamokar mantra. Indus signs in red ochre (an ancient paint) were also found there.


Khārabeḷa’s (Kharvel’s) cave.

(from Wikipedia:) Khārabēḷa (Khāravēla, 193 BCE – after 170 BCE) was the third and greatest emperor of the Mahameghavahana dynasty of Kaḷinga (present-day Odissa). The main source of information about Khārabeḷa is his famous seventeen line rock-cut Hātigumphā inscription in a cave in the Udayagiri hills near Bhubaneswar, Odisha. During the reign of Khārabēḷa, the Chedi dynasty of Kaḷinga ascended to eminence and restored the lost power and glory of Kaḷinga, which had been subdued since the devastating war with king Ashoka. The Kaḷingan military might was reinstated by Khārabēḷa: under Khārabēḷa’s generalship, the Kaḷinga state had a formidable maritime reach with trade routes linking it to the then Simhala (Sri Lanka), Burma (Myanmar), Siam (Thailand), Vietnam, Kamboja (Cambodia), Borneo, Bali, Samudra (Sumatra) and Jabadwipa (Java). Khārabēḷa led many successful campaigns against the states of Magadha, Anga, Satavahanas till the southern most regions of Pandyan Empire (modern Tamil Nadu) and made Kaḷinga a gigantic empire. He is credited to have broken the Tamil confederacy in the south, uprooted the western powers and defeated Demetrius, the Indo-Greek king of Bactria. After his victory over Demetrius, the first Sunga emperor of Magadha Rajagriha, Pushyamitra Sunga accepted the suzerainty of Kharavela and became a vassal of Kalinga. Pushyamitra also returned the Jina statue of the Tīrthaṅkara Mahāvīra to Kalinga. Although religiously tolerant, Khārabēḷa patronised Jainism


Kṣatri (Kshatri) He who has an umbrella, i.e. he who protects others. Rishabha (Ṛṣbha) instituted three classes of people: traders (wanik), handworkers and agriculturists (śudras), and protectors (kṣatriyas). It was his son Bharata who out of reverence for the soul-oriented ascetics gave them the name of ‘brahmans’ (Brahmins) and worshiped the monk Ṛṣabha, thus beginning the ritual of pūja. The term ‘brahman’ was gradually twisted by non-soul oriented egoists into a birth cast, who claimed their descend, creating stones for their own origin while suppressing others with their claim of superiority.


Kṣāyik (Kshayik)

Burning out of karmas. Depending on the degree of austerity, and to which extent they have burned of their karmas there are three degrees. There are three ways of countering karma: 1) sedimentation (subsiding of karmas; 2 partly burned and partly subsided; 3) totally burned off. The last way is kṣaya and the penancer to burn of his karmas is known as kṣāyik.


Kṣayopaśamik ((Kshayopashamik)

Mixture of aupaśamik and kṣayik, the second type of countering karmas as discussed above.


Kṣetrapāla (Kshetrapal)

The yakṣas, a class of celestials that occupy territory and care for that territory, especially where Jain ascetic are living. They also enjoy the worshiping of the Jina by the people joining them.


Kṣullaka (Kshullak)

A monk of the Digambara sect, but not totally nude (yet). He wears two cloths: on his loin and on his shoulder. See also Ellaka.


Kula Bhuṣana (Kul Bushan)

One of a twin in Jain historical narration, the other being Deśa Bhuṣana (Desh Bhushan). When of age the adolescents of noble family were sent to far country by their father for for purposes of tuition. They had no sisters; but they did not know that at that time their mother was already pregnant of a girl, which was born after their departure. After finishing their education after many years the two brothers returned home. A great home coming party was organized by their parents, and all the people of town went out to receive them. When seeing a beautiful girl of the attractive age standing on the balcony of their father’s house, bot of them fell instantly in love. When they noticed that of each other they immediately started fighting. Then they were informed that this girl was indeed their sister – of whose existence they knew nothing. It is a great sin to desire one’s own sister, and out of shame both brother decided to withdraw entirely from mundane life and live a Jain ascetic spiritual life henceforth. Ultimately the reached nirvana and became icons of Jain right behavior.


Kumari hill see Kandhagiri



Hill sacred for Digambara Jains; 60 km from Osmanabad. See for details: Jaindata.



The Seventeenth Tīrthaṅkara, with a goat as symbol.