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ISD kosh G

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Ascetic group. From Jñāna = knowledge. A gaṇī is the bearer of knowledge, or Head of an ascetic group.



Highly knowledgeable jñānis who can directly understand the teaching of a Jina during Samavasaran.


Gaṇeśa (Ganesha) = Jina = Jñana Isvara (=Jina)

God of knowledge; Gaṇas means knowledge holders. Jains don’t believe in Ganesh in Hindu sense as the son who of Shiva and Parvatī who got an elephant’s head.



The principle nun in a gaṇa.



The inner, separate part of the temple in which the idol for worship is installed.



The four directions or realms / divisions (gati) of existence where all non-liberated souls live and transmigrate from one form of existence to another and so on forever until spiritual emancipation / liberation is reached. Existence can be either in a physical or in an subtle body. These four Gatis are demarcated by the four squares formed by the limbs of the swastika. They are four: 1) the human realm (humans have five senses and a mind; 2) the subhuman (i.e. where abide the animals, the highest of which have five senses and a beginning of mind, lower animals with 2 -5 senses developed, plants, microbes and minerals (i.e. earth, water, air and fire beings). The last categories have only one organ of sense perception, i.e. touch); the categories 3) hellish and 4) heavenly are all five-sensed ethereal beings.



Hindu mantra invoking the Sun. Also a meter.



Destructible or damageable


Ghāti karma

The c(h)atuṣka ghāti are the 4 groups of destructible or damageable (ghāti) karmas. The karmas can be damaged by the power of the soul or can cause damage.

The four ghāti or destructive karmas:

1 Knowledge obscuring

2 Right view obscuring

3 Mohanīya A kind of spiritual stupor interfering with cognition (from Susā)

4 Vedanīya The karmas producing feelings of pleasure and pain.

See also Aghāti karma



The mountain in Gujarat where Neminātha, the 22nd Tīrthaṅkara (who was a cousin of Kṛṣṇa) reached salvation through tapas. Girnar hill is a pilgrimage site for Jains, but is now occupied by Hindus.


Gommeteśvara, Śrī

The granite image cut out of the mother-rock and connected with it of Bāhubalī on the Vindhya hill in Sravana Belagola. Nowadays regarded a one of the ‘world wonders.’


Gotra karma

The karma which determines the status (caste, family, social group) in which one is born.



The Jain spiritual ladder towards salvation made of 14 steps.



The one who is progressing spiritually along the 14-stepped ladder of spirituality.


Gya… see Jñā…