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ISD kosh B

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Tiger-attacking-the-goat game. Anger or passion karma is the tiger (bhag), the soul is the goat. The game originally means: protect your soul. The real game is to adopt samayik, which mean to reach equanimity of soul in all odd circumstances.



Literally: the strong-armed. The second son (out of a hundred) of the first Tīrthaṅkara, Ṛṣabha. He was very strong, both physically and spiritually. He won in a fight from his brother Bharata. He was the first human being in our present time-cycle to reach nirwāṇa after abandoning worldly power to his brother.



Bondage, tying up, union, confinement. The individual self attracts particles of matter [pudgala] which are fit to turn into karma [karmapudgala]. The bondage, or the karmic restrictions due to pudgala is called Bandha. See also āsrava, nirjarā and saṁvara.


Bhagavad Gītā

The song of the Lord; an ethical discourse contained in the Mahabharata epos between Arjuna, the man (every man) striving towards emancipation, who has to fight the war (against his ‘enemies’, i.e. his own lower self, attachments, karmas and external teachings), and the Lord Kṛṣṇa, who represents Arjuna’s highest inner being and who is adviser in the battle of Arjuna. The man Arjuna has to obey his inner divinity or true self.



Devotion (from the heart, without selfish interest).


Bharata (or Bharata Chakravarti, = king)

The first of the 100 sons (and two daughters) of Rishabha, and brother of the second son, Bāhubalī. Bhārata (India) is named after him. He was the first emperor of chakri king who reached salvation (nirwāṇa) i.e. liberation from mundane life for eternity.


Bhāratavarśa (Bharatvarsh)

Varśa = land, area of India, originally named after the first king, Bharata.


Bhavacakra (Bhavachakra)

Cycle of rebirths, successive existences.



If in this life I am a man or a woman, this is my present bhava. In former lives I may have been something else. It applies to all life-forms, totally dependent on karma, for example a soul may transmigrate from one animal species to another.


Bhāva (Bhaava)

Thoughts, feelings.


Bhava ghata

The containing space in which all rebirths of a soul take place, i.e. the container of all life forms. Each soul has its own cycle or bhava ghata.


Bhāva karma (Bhaava karma)

Mental karma; to be distinguished from dravya karma.


Bhava liṅga

Liṅga means identity. Psychical sign (SuSā),  chakra at the Mula(ā)dhara at the bottom of the spine according to Hinduism, in the region of the lumbar plexus. Function is controlling all the energies of the body and the psychology. 2 alternatives/options 1) Used for procreation etc. and therefore society invented institution of marriage.


Bheda vijñāni (Bheda vigyani)

Person who can differentiate between souls and body by experience (realization) of the soul.

Bhimbetika rock shelters (from Wikipedia:) An archaeological site of the Paleolithic, exhibiting the earliest traces of human life on the Indian subcontinent, and thus the beginning of the South Asian Stone Age. It is located in the Raisen District in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The Bhimbetika shelters exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India. At least some of the shelters were inhabited by Homo erectus more than 100,000 years ago.

Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetika rock shelters are approximately 30,000 years old. The caves also deliver early evidence of dance. They were declared a World Heritage Site in 2003.


Bhiṣma (Bhishma)

One of the five Pāndava brothers in the Hindu Mahābhārata epos. He died in battle after laying for weeks on a bed of standing arrows.



City near the seashore in Orissa, East India, nearby which was a Jain temple of de Tīrthaṅkara Neminātha; now overtaken by Hindus and now known as Jaggarnathpuri.


Bhuvalaya Grantha

Bhu-valaya, literally ‘Earth-circle scripture’ (a still existing scripture). On that book is depicted a symbol of a womb, because this scripture gave birth or was the basis of all Jain sacred scriptures. The text is about 1008 utilities of OM. The womb symbols is a garland made out of beads of alphabetical signs. OM itself is the womb-sound or sound of the universe and of all languages. All human sounds come forth from the region of the throat and lips in humans. OM contains all phonations that animals and other creatures can make. First there were symbols, then came phonations, then scriptural signs and from them scriptures. OM is 1) the sound of an animal, 2) of a new-born child, 3) is sound greater than (beyond the confines of) humans. The tīrthaṅkaras, during samavasaran, speaks only “OM” and the gaṇadharas (disciples) [gaṇa is derived from jñāna = soul-knowledge, knowledge of which the soul is the knower) understand/ derive all Jain teachings and scriptures from it.


Bhuvalaya Yantra

Complex figure (yantra) represented as a sequential chain of alphabets each of which is the beginning letter of one particular scripture. The chain is closed and can be opened from any alphabet. With time people forgot how to open the yantra, but some years back a ten years old boy opened one of them ‘just by chance’.



A Female practitioner of brahmācāryaCelibacy. In celibacy both bhava and dravya (touch etc.) are controlled. That is brahmācārya, what actually means: continuous orientation towards the soul.


Brahmācārya (Brahmacharya)

Celibacy. In celibacy both bhava and dravya (touch etc.) are controlled. That is brahmācārya – which actually means continuous orientation towards the soul.



Daughter of Ṛṣabha (before he turned to spiritual life, of course) and she became the first nun of this avasarpiṇī or downward half of the time cycle. She invented scripts. (before her there were already 18 scripts (bhāṣā and lipi, phonetic resp. in scriptural form) and 700 subscripts (dialects, only phonetic) prevalent, and all these were composed by Ṛṣabha). She invented a new language, named Brahmī. That Brahmi-lipi was symbolic and then turned into Prakrit (= the language which originates from nature) and is the earliest Prakrit, distinguishing it from Sanskrit, which is a formalized unchanging language). The commonly known Brahmī is of much later date, after Mahāvīra, who lived more than 2500 yeas ago.